Pictures and Illustrations

Victoria and Albert Museum
Thought to be the future second Earl.

National Portrait Gallery
John Closterman, c. 1700/1: The third Earl and his brother Maurice Ashley. For further details click here.

St Giles’s House

See Media Gallery.
John Closterman, c. 1701/2: The third Earl and an unidentified figure. For further details click here.
John Closterman, c. 1701/2: Maurice Ashley in hunting dress. For further details click here.

St Giles’s House and Estates

See Media Gallery

Shaftesbury Estates


Early Modern Texts
Online-editions of four of the Earl’s texts

Liberty Fund
Edition of Characteristicks in 3 vols

Laurent Jaffro
Edition of Letter concerning Enthusiasm – Original link: (not active)
Main site:

Shaftesbury in Online Encyclopaedias

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Biographisch-bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (German)

Dictionary of Sensibility, University of Virginia
by Corey Brady, Virginia Cope, Michael Millner, Ana Mitric, Kent Puckett, Danny Siegel

The Columbia Encyclopedia
Sixth Edition, 2001-5

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy


General introduction

Bibliography of secondary works (University of Paris-Sorbonne)
Extensive bibliography of secondary works (monographs and articles).
© Laurent Jaffro, Directeur de la maison des scienes de l’homme de Clermont-Ferrand, 1998

Liberty Fund
The illustrations for Characteristicks with commentary.

Biography (Italian)

Italian research on British Enlightenment

Eighteenth-Century Resources

Liability disclaimer

These hyperlinks are provided for reference only, and we at the Shaftesbury Project cannot accept responsibility for the contents of third-party sites or for any kind of damage incurred during their use.